Techshore : Flow

Techshore : Flow

Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering
Introduction Measurement of flow rate and quantity is the oldest of all measurement of process variable in the field of instrumentation. It is made for determining the proportions and quantity of materials flowing in and out of a process. These values are necessary for plant material balancing, quality control, operation of the process and for cost accounting. But flow is the most difficult parameter to measure. In process pressure level temperature are controlled by controlling the flow itself. Flow measurements are made for gases, liquids and solids. Definition: The displacement of any volumetric quantity of fluids from higher potential to lower potential in a particular time period is called flow. Units of flow: gallion/min, litre/hour, tons/hour, pound/minute, kg/sec, cubic foot/hour. Physical Properties Of Flowing Fluids. DENSITY All substances have density.…
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Techshore : Procedure Of Liquid Penetrant Test

Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering, Uncategorized
Introduction Preparing the metal surface This step determines the effectiveness in getting the final result of defects. the surface of the metal to be inspected may contain a lot of impurities such as oil ,water, grease, dust and many other impurities that prevents the penetrant which is applied onto the surface in the coming step. These impurities may prevent the penetrant to get into any defects .so usually the metal surface is cleaned off by using a liquid called as solvent. The solvent is usually available in pressurized spray can which is to be sprayed at an angle of 45 degrees keeping a one feet distance from the metal surface, hence the diluted impurities are cleaned off using a lint free towel in a single direction. Application of penetrant The…
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Techshore : Stress – Strain curve for ductile materials

Techshore : Stress – Strain curve for ductile materials

Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering
Ductile materials Ductile materials, in which includes structural steel and alloys of other metals, are regarded as their ability to yield at normal temperatures. Refer to the Fig.1&2, illustrates the stress-strain relationship and pointed out the deformation of material under stress and regions. The different regions in the curve are, Ultimate strength Yield strength or yield point Rupture Strain hardening region Necking region Apparent stress Actual stress Low carbon steel generally demonstrates a very linear stress–strain relationship up to yield point. The linear portion of the curve is the elastic region and the slope is called the Young’s Modulus or modulus of elasticity. Young's Modulus is defined as the ratio between the compressive stress and longitudinal strain. After the yield point, the curve typically decreases slightly because of dislocations escaping from Cottrell atmospheres. As deformation…
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